Original article / research
A Histopathological Study on Primary Cutaneous Malignancies of Surface Epidermis
Dr. Rameswary Korata,
Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, Katuri Medical College and Hospital, Katuri Nagar, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Introduction: Skin is a complex organ, it’s intricacy allows for a wide range of malignancies. Skin types, geographical latitudes, occupational exposure, sun exposure, and skin protection behaviors may all contribute to skin cancer trends and rates. Some cancers are easily recognised clinically, whereas others require a combination of clinical and histopathological correlation.
Aim: To determine the spectrum and frequency of various primary cutaneous malignancies of the surface epidermis based on histomorphological characteristics, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Materials and Methods: The present retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Pathology at Katuri Medical College and Hospital, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study covered a total of 30 cases of primary cutaneous malignancies of surface epidermis with histopathological confirmation. The study samples included from January 2019 to June 2021 over a 30-month period and the data was collected and analysed in the month of August 2021 and September 2021 from the histopathology records. Typing of these tumours was done by using Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained sections. All the cases were analysed and divided according to the patient’s age, gender, and tumour location, as well as the tumour’s histological characteristics. Descriptive statistics were used and data was tabulated in frequency and percentages.
Results: A total of 30 cases of primary cutaneous malignancies of surface epidermis, were studied, of which 21 (70%) cases were keratinocyte derived cancers and 6 (20%) cases were melanocyte derived cancers. The most frequent keratinocyte tumour was squamous cell carcinoma followed by Basal cell carcinomas. Present study documented three cases of melanocarcinomas, of which two were basomelanocytic tumors and one case was squamomelanocytic tumors. There was slight male preponderance with male to female was 3:2. Most cases distributed in the age group of 61-80 years, followed by 41-60 years. The most frequently involved anatomical site was the head and neck region followed by the trunk region.
Conclusion: Skin cancers, at times, may be difficult to diagnose clinically. Hence, histopathological examination is a must for definitive diagnosis. This study highlighted the critical role of histopathology in accurately classifying tumours into distinct morphological types which enables the clinician to make the correct diagnosis and formulate appropriate treatment plan.
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