Original article / research
Prevalence of Thyroid Disorders in and around Nalgonda District, Telangana, India: A Cross-sectional Study
Dr Aradhana Badam,
Dr B Aradhana Sri Rama Nilayam, H No 5-8-50/205/101, Behind RS Supermarket, Sagar Complex, Sripuram, B.N. Reddy Nagar, Hyderabad-500070, Telangana, India.
Introduction: Among the endocrine disorders, thyroid disorders are the most common. Long term and excessive intake of fluoride plays a significant role in the development of thyroid disorders. Nalgonda is one of the highly drought-prone districts in Southern India and its groundwater has 10 to 15 parts per million (ppm) of fluoride in contrast to a maximum permitted level of just 1.5 ppm. The entire Nalgonda division is under the threat of fluorosis due to high concentration of fluoride in the drinking water.
Aim: To assess the prevalence of thyroid disorders in and around areas of Nalgonda district, Telangana, India.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College, Nalgonda, Telangana, India, from December 2021 to May 2022. Total 391 subjects attending Outpatient Department (OPD) of General Medicine, Nalgonda were included in the study. Samples were analysed for thyroid function tests (total T3,T4, thyroid stimulating hormone) by chemiluminiscence immuno assay method in an Abbott architect ci4100 automated analyser. Statistical analysis was done by using Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and results were expressed as prevalence percentages, mean±Standard Deviation (SD).
Results: In the present study, the mean age was 39.5±20.506 years. Out of the total participants, 273 (69.8%) subjects were found to be euthyroid and 118 (30.2%) had thyroid disorders. Among 30.2% subjects with thyroid disorders, 32 (8.2%) were hypothyroid, 19 (4.9%) were hyperthyroid, 54 (13.8%) were having subclinical hypothyroidism, 13 (3.3%) were having subclinical hyperthyroidism. The prevalence of thyroid disorders was higher in females compared with males, with the ratio of 3:1 and females contributing to major disease burden.
Conclusion: According to this study, prevalence of thyroid disorders was 30.2% with more disease burden in females. Subclinical hypothyroidism contributes to the major disease burden.
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