Original article / research
An Observational Study of Head and Neck Squamous Carcinomas from a Tertiary Cancer Centre of Marathwada Region, Maharashtra, India
Dr. Rakeshkumar Jaikumar Ajmera,
48, Sujay Niwas, Bhagya Nagar, Aurangabad-431001, Maharashtra, India.
Introduction: Head and neck cancer constitutes about one third of all the cancers in India. Head and neck squamous carcinoma is an important cause of morbidity and mortality with variability in geographical location, age, gender, habits, socio-economic status.
Aim: To identify changing trends in age, gender, sites involved and histopathological grades of malignant and analyse potentially malignant lesions in head and neck region in Marathwada region of Maharashtra, India.
Materials and Methods: This observational retrospective descriptive study was carried out in tertiary cancer hospital in Marathwada region of Maharashtra, India, over a period of two years which included 1008 cases. All the biopsy cases and biopsies obtained under ultrasound and also computed tomography (CT) guidance showing invasive squamous carcinoma and potentially malignant lesions of head and neck region with their histological analysis were studied. Relevant clinical and demographic details were noted and statistical analysis was done and results were explained in tables and percentage.
Results: Total 1008 cases were studied. The maximum number of cases were in the age group of 51-60 years. Males were more affected than females. The buccal mucosa (29.5%) was most common site affected and maxilla (0.8%) the least. Histologically invasive tumour were well differentiated (17.65%), moderately differentiated (79.93%) and poorly differentiated (2.42%). Rest lesions were distributed in following categories: carcinoma-in-situ, verrucous neoplasm, dysplasia, atypical squamous proliferation, leukoplakia, pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. Age-wise, site-wise, gender-wise distribution of cases and association between site of lesions and gender and grade of tumour were studied.
Conclusion: The associated risk factors, lifestyle patterns, habits, addictions and geographic and demographic factors, socio-economic status and evolving Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) association and pathogenesis are still topic of debate where much progress is still to be made. It deserves closer study. Apart from invasive squamous malignancies, precursor lesions if investigated at an earliest along with increasing awareness among population in relation to healthy lifestyle changes, habits followed by thorough clinical examination and histopathology and HPV association, possibility of planning specific strategies of prevention, diagnosis and treatment help reduce morbidity and mortality.
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