Original article / research
Clinical and Histopathological Findings of Ectopic Pregnancy Cases- A Retrospective Study from a Tertiary Care Hospital, Andhra Pradesh, India
Dr. Kaumudi Konkay,
Golden Homes Appartments, Krishna Nagar, Near TJPS College, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Introduction: Ectopic Pregnancy (EP) is defined as a pregnancy that occurs in ectopic location, that is, outside the cavity of uterus. It is one of the leading causes of mortality in the first trimester of pregnancy and one of indication for emergency laparotomy. Timely diagnosis is extremely crucial as delay in diagnosis can lead to mortality. Diagnosing ectopic pregnancy is quiet challenging as there are many conditions which have similar presentation and may not require surgical management. Histopathology is required for confirmation of ectopic pregnancy by identifying trophoblastic tissue in ectopic location, since there are other conditions like haematosalpinx, ruptured haemorrhagic corpus luteum which can have similar presentation clinically.
Aim: To analyse the clinicopathological features of cases clinically diagnosed as ectopic pregnancy and estimate the percentage of cases which were confirmed on histopathology and assess the percentage of cases which were negative on histopathology.
Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective observational study conducted on three years data collected retrospectively between July 2017 to June 2020. Clinical details like age of the patient, parity, gestational age, previous history of any associated risk factors for ectopic pregnancy, were obtained from patient requisition forms and pathology records. Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained sections were reviewed. Descriptive analysis was done. Data entry was made in Microsoft (MS) excel sheet. Frequencies and percentages were calculated.
Results: Total of 128 cases (mean age 25.8±4.87 years) data was analysed in this study, most women were between 21-30 years 97 (75.7%), with mean age of 25.8 years and presented in 2nd pregnancy 40 (46.5%) out of 86 cases where details were known and in 6th week of gestation 28 (35.8%) out of 78 cases where details were known with mean gestational age of 7.2 weeks. Most common risk factors were previous abortions and previous caesarean section 36 (43.9%) out of 82 cases where details were known. Fallopian tube was the most common site 112 (99.1%) out of 113 cases. On histopathological examination, trophoblastic tissue was identified in 116 (90.6%) cases out of 128 cases. Total 12 (11.7%) cases showed no evidence of trophoblastic tissues, of these 3 (25%) cases showed ruptured corpus luteum, 7 (58.3%) showed haematosalpinx, and 2 (16.66%) cases showed chronic salpingitis changes.
Conclusion: Ectopic pregnancy was most frequent in women between 21-30 years, in 2nd pregnancy and in 6th week of gestation. Most common risk factors were previous abortions and previous caesarean section. Fallopian tube was the most common site. Ectopic pregnancy was confirmed on histopathological examination, 90.6% cases. A total of 11.7% cases which showed no evidence of trophoblastic tissues, were cases of haematosalpinx, ruptured haemorrhagic corpus luteum and chronic salpingitis and they presented clinically as ectopic pregnancy.
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