Original article / research
Seroprevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Diseases in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Northern India: A Five Year Retrospective Study
Dr. Nikhilesh Kumar,
Professor, Department of Pathology, TSM Medical College and Hospital, Amausi,
Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Introduction: Although transfusion of blood and its components is life saving but it may also pose a threat to life as with every unit of blood there is 1% chance of transfusion associated problems which include the transfusion of transmitted diseases as well. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (Government of India) under The Drug and Cosmetic Act, 1945 (amended from time to time) mandates the screening of blood donations against five major infections- Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Syphilis and Malaria.
Aim: To estimate the prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infections (TTIs) among blood donors in a tertiary care hospital.
Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective five year study from February 2016 to January 2021. The study was undertaken at TS Misra Medical College and Hospital, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. The sample size included 5420 blood donors. The data concerning type of donors, gender and results of screening tests were obtained from blood bank register/records. Donor selection was based on history of present and past illness and also included a pre-donation questionnaire. Serum samples were screened for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to HIV Type 1 and 2 and antibodies to HCV using Microwell Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) Test. For syphilis and malaria detection, membrane based immunoassay and sandwich immunoassay techniques were used respectively.
Results: Out of a total of 5420 blood donations over a period of five years, there were 5298 male donors and 122 female donors. There were 5368 replacement donors and 52 voluntary donors. The prevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV, syphilis and malaria was 0.16%, 0.77%, 0.11%, 0.53% and 0%, respectively.
Conclusion:Voluntary blood donations, stringent screening measures, advanced screening techniques, strict donor selection are essential features for decreasing the prevalence further and also would ensure blood safety
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