Original article / research
Importance of Serosal Fluid Cytology as an Aid to Primary Diagnosis: A Descriptive Cross-sectional Study
Sheetal Maheshkumar Sale,
12471, Mali Plot, Shri Krishna, South Shivajinagar, Sangli, Maharashtra, India.
Introduction: Cytological study of fluids is an inexpensive, simple procedure and has significant utility in diagnosing neoplastic and non neoplastic lesions. The cytological examination of fluids in combination with physical examination helps identify aetiologic agents, follow the natural process of the disease and monitor the response to the treatment.
Aim: To determine the diagnostic utility of serosal fluid cytology and analyse the incidence of neoplastic and non neoplastic lesions using serous fluid cytology.
Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study comprising 375 cases conducted in a tertiary care hospital, Sangli, Maharashtra, India, from August to July 2021. Purposive sampling was used to recruit the participants. All the patients with pleural effusions, ascites or in whom Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF), pericardial and synovial fluids examination was indicated were included. The provisional diagnosis was obtained from case sheets, including relevant clinical information. Smears were prepared from freshly tapped specimens without adding anticoagulants and were processed by routine, conventional smear technique. The data were analysed using the SPSS version 22.0 for Windows. Numerical variables were reported as frequency and percentage. The chi-square test was used wherever necessary, and the p-value less than 0.05 were considered significant.
Results: The peritoneal fluid was the most common fluid collected in the present study, followed by pleural fluid and CSF. The malignancy rate in the present study was 19 (10.4%) of peritoneal fluid, 6 (5.9%) for pleural fluid, and 2 (4.1%) for CSF. Adenocarcinoma was the most common malignancy found in present study.
Conclusion: Adenocarcinoma was the most common malignancy found in this study, which was in concordance with the research conducted earlier, where gold standard investigations confirmed the findings. In the peritoneal fluid, most of the patients had cirrhosis and tuberculosis. In pleural fluid and cerebrospinal fluid, most of them had tuberculosis and chronic inflammatory conditions, respectively. Previous researchers confirmed similar findings in their studies. It is seen that malignant and benign conditions like tuberculosis can be diagnosed well with effusion cytology.
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