Original article / research
Clinical Epidemiology of Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis in a Nodal Drug Resistant-TB Centre in Southern Odisha: A Cross-sectional Study
Dr. Abinash Panda,
Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacology, MKCG Medical College,
Berhampur, Odisha, India.
Introduction: Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a significant public health problem. The number of MDR-TB cases is very high in India and the management is inadequate due to resource constraints. The assessment of MDR TB burden has to be reliable for programmatic management of MDR-TB under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) of India.
Aim: To find the clinico-demographic profile and pattern of MDR-TB among the tuberculosis patients reporting to a nodal tuberculosis centre in Southern Odisha, India.
Materials and Methods: The patient record based cross-sectional study was carried out on a convenience sample of 125 sputum positive MDR-TB cases admitted to the Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) plus centre of the Nodal Tuberculosis Centre at Berhampur, Odisha, India, during the period from April 2017 to March 2018. A predesigned case record form was used to collect data on the socio-demographic profile, addictions, co-morbidity, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) status, Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunisation status, pattern of drug resistance, history of anti-TB treatment, presenting symptoms at admission, adverse drug reactions observed during the treatment for MDR-TB. The data was analysed using GraphPad Prism trial version 7.0. Descriptive statistics were used to present the final data.
Results: Highest number of study participants (95, 76%) were within 18-45 years age group and 90 (72%) of the patients were males. Rural habitation (90, 72%), engagement in labour works (65, 52%), low socio-economic status (75, 60%) were the common socio-economic characteristics. Resistance to rifampicin was the commonest variety 101 (80.8%) and 80 (64%) were newly diagnosed cases of tuberculosis. The commonest presenting symptom was cough in 97 (77.6%) patients and gastrointestinal upset was the commonest adverse drug reaction encountered during therapy.
Conclusion: The MDR-TB affects the population in their most productive age. Rifampicin resistant TB was the predominant variety observed in the study population. The MDR-TB can be successfully treated with maximally effective and complete drug regimes.
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