Original article / research
Trend of HIV Infection and Associated Risk Factors at Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Bihar: A Retrospective Study
Dr. Nidhi Prasad,
Assistant Professor, Department of Virology, IGIMS, Patna-800014, Bihar, India.
Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection became a major global health issue and a priority in many countries because it is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. In India, about 71% of total annual new HIV infections were reported from Telangana, Bihar, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujrat, Tamil Nadu and Delhi. The major cause of concern is that around 25% of the infected people are not aware that they are infected by HIV virus and is one of the major risk factor responsible for the spread of HIV infection.
Aim: To evaluate the trends, pattern and associated risk factors responsible for the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in patients who attended Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre (ICTC) of a tertiary care centre of Bihar, India.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on the available records of all the patients who attended ICTC of a tertiary care centre in Bihar, India, between January 2016 to December 2018. The data regarding the age, sex, marital status, educational status and behavioural pattern of the patients tested for HIV infection at the ICTC were assessed and analysed. Descriptive statistical analysis was done.
Results: The total of 16333 and 15969 patients received counselling and testing services respectively during the study period. The prevalence of HIV infection was 3.70%, amongst whom 64.38% were males and 32.93% were females including 2.69% pregnant female patients. The ratio of seropositive male to seropositive female was 2.07:1. Maximum seroreactivity was found in 35-49 years age group (38.57%) followed by 25-34 years age group (28.42%). The major factor for the transmission and spread of HIV infection was unprotected sexual contact (88.33%) followed by mother to child transmission, infected blood and its products and infected needles and syringes. Illiteracy (45%) and unawareness was the major associated factor for spread of HIV infection.
Conclusion: The high prevalence of HIV infection can be minimised by creating awareness, following safe sexual practices, promoting antenatal screening, procuring blood and its product from authorised blood banks where proper screening of Transfusion Transmitted Infections (TTI) is done.
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