Original article / research
Incidence, Risk Analysis and Recommendations for Needlestick, Sharp, and Splash Injuries at a Tertiary Care Government Hospital Kota, Rajasthan, India
Dr. Saurabh Sharma,
H. No-107, Dadabari Extension, Kota-324009, Rajasthan, India.
Introduction: Needlestick, Sharp, and Splash Injuries (NSSSIs) are the major occupational hazards for the Healthcare Workers (HCWs) risking them for Blood-Borne Viruses (BBVs) such as Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and are contributed by factors like work stress, inadequate experience and training.
Aim: To analyse the baseline data and risk factors for developing NSSSI’s and to establish the recommendations to prevent them in future.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis was carried out in a tertiary care centre from January 2016 to December 2019. The data of all the HCWs who voluntarily reported NSSSIs like needlestick injury, sharp injuries from cannulas, broken vials, splash injuries on intact skin and mucous membranes by potentially infectious materials such as blood and other body fluids during the study period was analysed. Data was collected and entered into Microsoft Excel 2007 and percentages were calculated.
Results: A total of 202 NSSSI’s were reported (85.14% needlestick injuries, 10.80% sharp injuries and 4% splash injuries). Most injuries of NSSSIs occurred in wards (30.70%), followed by emergency department (14.9%). Females (63.4%) were more affected than males. Doctors (30.2%) and nurses (26.7%) reported the maximum episodes of injuries. Fingers (72.1%) accounted for maximum affected body part during the needlestick and sharp injuries followed by palm (15.9%), while splash injury involved most commonly non intact skin (75%). Hollow needles accounted for maximum (84.3%) of episodes of needlestick injuries whereas most of the other sharp injuries were due to surgical blades (63.63%). Most injuries occurred during the use of device (38.12%) like blood withdrawal, suturing, giving injections, etc.
Conclusion: There was significant incidence of NSSSIs among HCWs. However, with continuous efforts of educating the staff; the problem of underreporting has slightly improved especially among the doctors, but there is significant work to do in case of the paramedics and nurses. Thus continuous education, timely reporting, prevention strategies and emphasis on appropriate Biomedical Waste (BMW) disposal are needed to increase occupational safety for HCWs.
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