Original article / research
Nitric Oxide and Iron- Friends or Foes to Heart?
Dr. Muppala Thejaswini,
Department of Biochemistry, Gems&H, Ragolu, Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Introduction: Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) is the leading cause of cardiovascular death worldwide and will be one of the four major causes of death by 2030. Nitric Oxide (NO) is a locally acting vasodilator that regulates smooth muscle tone and produces relaxation of coronary arteries. Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient that contributes to many important physiological functions in the body. Abnormalities in the serum levels of iron and NO play a crucial role in the development of the cardiovascular disorder, especially IHD, by promoting atherogenesis.
Aim: To estimate and compare serum iron and NO levels in new and old cases of IHD and also to find the correlation between iron and NO levels in IHD.
Materials and Methods: The present case control study was done in the Department of Biochemistry, KS Hegde Charitable Hospital, from October 2015 to March 2016. A total of 107 subjects were included in the study. Out of 107 subjects, 35 were new IHD cases diagnosed recently, 36 were old IHD cases currently on treatment, and 36 were age and sex matched controls. After obtaining Ethical clearance and taking informed consent, iron and NO levels were analysed. Iron was determined by the Ferrozine method on the autoanalyser. Serum NO was estimated by the Griess reagent method using a Double UV beam spectrophotometer. Results were expressed as mean±SD for normally distributed data and as median (interquartile) for skewed data. The groups were compared using ANOVA for normal data and the Kruskal Wallis test for skewed data. Correlation between different parameters was determined using Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: Both new and old IHD cases had significantly low (p<0.001) serum NO levels when compared to controls. The levels were moderately higher (p<0.05) in old IHD cases, than those in new IHD cases. Significantly low mean serum iron levels were observed in both new and old IHD cases when compared to controls. However, all the serum iron values were within the normal reference range. There was no statistically significant correlation between serum NO and iron in new and old cases of IHD.
Conclusion: High NO and iron levels reduce the risk of IHD. Serial estimation of these parameters in high risk population may help in early diagnosis and prevention of IHD.
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