Original article / research
Comparative Study of the Pattern of Dyslipidaemia among Urban and Rural Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Population Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern Odisha, India
Pankaj Kumar Khora,
Department of General Medicine, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, Kushabhadra Campus (KIIT Campus-5) Patia,751024, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
Introduction: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have increased incidence of obesity and are prone to dyslipidaemia which in turn is the key ingredient of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). The lifestyle, environment and eating habits significantly vary in urban industrialised areas compared to rural countryside in the same ethnic group.
Aim: To compare the pattern of dyslipidaemia among urban and rural type 2 diabetes mellitus population attending a diabetes follow-up clinic in a tertiary care hospital in eastern Odisha.
Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study included patients who attended the diabetes follow-up clinic from July 2017 to December 2017 and included adults (≥18 years) suffering from type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetics, 300 each from the urban and rural countryside were included in the study. Sociodemographic characteristics, medical history and laboratory investigations like fasting and Postprandial Blood Sugar (PPBS), lipid parameters and HbA1c were recorded. Anthropometric measurements like height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure were measured. The laboratory values were calculated as mean±standard deviation and correlation analysis with the Pearson coefficient. Z-test was used to compare data at 95% confidence level.
Results: Hypertension was detected in 71% of patients in the urban study sample compared to 34.3% in rural. Obesity was prevalent in 34% of patients in the urban study sample compared to 12.3% in rural. Dyslipidaemia was observed in 86.0% of patients in the urban study sample compared to 66.67% in rural. Finally, physical inactivity was identified in 67.7% of patients in the urban study sample compared to 36.67% in rural.
Conclusion: Blood sugar, both fasting and postprandial was significantly higher in the urban study population as compared to rural. The same variation in HbA1c level was also observed. Incidence of obesity along with dyslipidaemia was more pronounced in urban as compared to the rural population. Obesity and lipid profile showed a positive correlation with HbA1c in both but were significantly stronger in the urban study group as compared to the rural. All the CVD risk factors like hypertension, obesity, dyslipidaemia and physical inactivity were statistically higher in the urban study population as compared to rural.
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