Original article / research
Effect of Age and Duration of Diabetes on Levels of Microalbuminuria among Type 2 Diabetic Patients
Dr. Narendra Kumar Sah,
Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Maharishi Markandeshwar Medical College and Hospital,
Kumarhatti-Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India.
Introduction: Out of 10, one adult will encompass diabetes by 2030. This fact indicates that the number of people inhabiting with this disorder is predicted to rise from 366 million in 2011 to 552 million by 2030, if no critical action is taken. During the first 5 years of diabetes, thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, glomerular hypertrophy, and mesangial volume expansion occur as the GFR returns to normal. After 5–10 years of type 1 diabetes, nearly 40% of individuals begin to excrete small amounts of albumin in the urine. Microalbuminuria is present in 20-30% of all patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and is especially common in those with hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and other features of insulin resistance.
Aim: To estimate microalbuminuria among type 2 diabetes mellitus and to correlate age and duration of diabetis with the levels of microalbuminuria among such patients.
Materials and Methods: The case-control study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Mullana (Ambala), India. The sample size was fifty diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus and fifty age and sex matched apparently healthy controls. Simple random sampling method was employed. The statistical analysis was done with the help of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software to validate by applying Students’ t-test and Pearson correlation.
Results: Mean age of type 2 diabetic patients was found to be 51.38±7.920 years whereas, that of healthy controls was found to be 48.48±6.876 years. It was found that the prevalence of microalbuminuria was 52 %among type 2 diabetic patients. In type 2 diabetic patients, mean Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and microalbuminuria were significantly higher as compared to healthy controls. Further, there was strong correlation between microalbuminuria and glycaemic control. Also, there was significant correlation of microalbuminuria with advancing age and the duration of diabetes among type 2 diabetic patients. With the increase in duration of diabetes, there was significant progression of microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria (>300 mg/day).
Conclusion: Hence, it can be concluded that the early determination of microalbuminuria should be implemented in clinical practice for overall risk evaluation, at least in diabetic patients.
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