Original article / research
Detection of Anti-ABO Antibodies Titres Prior ABO Incompatible Renal Transplantation using Indirect Antihuman Globulin Test via Tube Incubation and Gel Column Technique
Dr. Aruna Vanikar
Professor, Department of Immuno-haematology,
Institute of Kidney Diseases and Research Centre Civil Hospital Campus Asarwa,
Ahmedabad-380016, Gujarat, India.
Introduction: Renal transplantation is the ideal treatment for patients with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Nowadays, ABO incompatible renal transplant give encouraging results. It reduces the waiting time of patients of ESRD waiting for renal transplant. Antibody titre estimation plays a major role in deciding the donor for ABO incompatible transplant. There are two conventional methods for antibody titre estimation tube incubation technique and gel method. We have compared both the methods so it may help the clinicians in deciding the donor.
Aim: ABO incompatible transplantation is practiced to increase donor pool for Renal Transplant (RT) patients. Indirect Antihuman Globulin (IAT) test by Tube Incubation Technique (TIT) and by gel column technique (IAT-Gel) were compared for detection of anti-ABO antibodies for potential ABO incompatible RT.
Materials and Methods: This was retrospective study of 100 patient sera and corresponding donor red cells used for estimation of anti-ABO antibody titres. Anti-B-antibody titre was performed in group-“A”, anti-A-antibody titre in group “B” and either anti-A or anti-B titre was performed in group-“O” patients. Anti-human globulin was employed for both the techniques. Mean and standard deviation was calculated to measure the amount of variation in the titre values by both the methods in all the blood groups.
Results: “O positive”, “O negative”, “A positive”, and “B positive” blood groups were noted in 75, 2, 12 and 11 patients respectively. Anti-A antibody titre was performed in 30 “O positive”, 1 “O negative” and 11 “B positive” patients. Anti-B antibody titre was performed in 45 “O positive”, 1 “O negative” and 12 “A positive” patients. By IAT-gel technique mean anti-A titres were 339.35 and anti-B titres were 212 in group “O”, anti-B titres were 31.83 in group “A”, and anti-A titres were 29 in group “B” patients. By IAT-TIT, mean anti-A titres were 149.42 and anti-B titre were 122.04 in group “O”, anti-B titres were 64.17 in group “A”, and anti-A titres were 21.78 in group “B” patients. Mean titres were higher by IAT-gel technique versus IAT-TIT
Conclusion: IAT technique is more sensitive method than IAT TIT for ABO antibody titre measurement.
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