Original article / research
Multigravidity a Major Risk Factor of Anaemia in Pregnancy and its Comparison in Primigravida Women in Raichur
Dr. Praveen S Patil,
Tutor, Department of Physiology, Raichur Institute of Medical Sciences, Raichur-584102, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: Among etiological factors, multiparity remains inconclusive with various conflicting studies. Considering that multiparity is a common norm in the reproductive life of women in developing countries it is important to find a clear relationship between anaemia and multiparity.
Aim: To ascertain the exclusive role of multigravidity as a risk factor for anaemia in pregnancy as well as to bring to light the incidence of anaemia in pregnancy in the women of Raichur.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a focus group of female patients attending Civil Hospital Raichur over a period of six months. Total 300 pregnant women (150 primigravida women and 150 multigravida women) of similar socioeconomic standing within the age group of 18-40 years were selected. Medical history was collected from the participants. Complete blood count, inclusive of Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH and MCHC was estimated using automated haematological Analyzer Sysmexkx 21. Peripheral smear were done using Leishman’s stain. Statistical analysis of the data collected was done by percentage, proportion, mean± SD and p-value <0.05 was taken as significant.
Results: The incidence of anaemia in pregnancy was found to be 58.33% (175). primigravida women showed an incidence of 46% (69 out of 150) while multigravida women showed an incidence of 70.67% (106 out of 150). Average haemoglobin levels of primigravida women were 10.63±1.41 and that of multigravida women were 9.58±1.68 (p=0.03) In primigravida women a higher percentage of women had moderate anaemia 47.82 % (33 out of 69) as compared to mild anaemia 46.38% (32 out of 69)and severe anaemia 5.8% (4 out of 69). A higher percentage of multigravida women were found to have moderate anaemia 52.83%(56 out of 106), followed by mild anaemia 33.96% (36 out of 106) and then severe anaemia 13.2% (14 out of 106). RBC indices were found to be below normal with average MCV values of primigravida and multigravida women being 78.10 fL and 75.88 fL respectively.
Conclusion: Incidence of anaemia is high in Raichur with there being a higher incidence of anaemia in multigravida women. Gravidity increases the incidence of anaemia in pregnancy. Multigravidity is therefore a risk factor of anaemia in pregnancy.
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